## Boltzmann's Entropy Formula: Calculator  S=Entropy ; K= Bolzmann's Constant ; W = Number of microsates

## Intensity and Absorbance  A = Absorbance ; Io = Intensity of the incident radiation ; I = Intensity of the transmitted radiation

## Allowed rotational energy level of rigid diatomic molecule  Ej = Rotational energy Level; I= Moment of Inertia; J= Rotational quantum number ; h = Plank's constant

## Beer -Lambert Law : Concentration, Path-length and Absorbance Calculator  A = Absorbance ; ε = Molar absorption coefficient , Molar absorptivity  or Molar extinction coefficient c = Concentration ; l  = Path Length

## Beer -Lambert Law : Concentration, Path-length and Transmittance Calculator  T= Transmittance ; ε = Molar Absorption Coefficient ; c = Concentration ; l = Path Length

## Relative Population of rotational energy states : Boltzmann Distribution Calculator  NJ = Number of molecule in J state ; N0 = Number of molecule in the ground state ( J= 0 ) ; K=Bolzmann Constant ; T = Temperature ; B = Rotational Constant; h = Plank Constant ; x=Relative Population; c = Velocity of light ; J = Rotational Quantum Number

## Boiling Point Elevation Calculator  K=  Boiling Point Elevation Coefficient ; M = Molarity of the solution (when solute is added) ;

T0 = Boiling Point of the pure solvent; T= Boiling Point of the solution

## Boiling Point Elevation Coefficient Calculator  K= Boiling Point Elavation Coefficient ; M = Molecular weight ; T= Boiling Point of the pure Solvent ; ΔH = Heat of Vaporization ;

## Raoult's Law Calculator  p= Vapour Pressure of an Ideal Solution ; x= Mole Fraction of Solvent ; po =Vapour Pressure of the Pure Solvent ;

## Freezing Point Depression Calculator  K=  Freezing Point Depression Coefficient ; M = Molarity of the solution (when solute is added) ; T0 = Freezing Point of the pure solvent; T= Freezing Point of the solution