begin mathsize 36px style d subscript h k l end subscript equals fraction numerator a over denominator square root of h squared plus k squared plus l squared end root end fraction end style

dhkl= Lattice Spacing ; a = Lattice Constant ; h , k , l = Miller Indices;

begin mathsize 48px style left parenthesis h k l right parenthesis end style

h , k , l= Miller Indices ;    

begin mathsize 36px style U equals fraction numerator N subscript A M z to the power of plus z to the power of minus e squared over denominator 4 πε subscript straight o straight r end fraction open parentheses 1 minus 1 over n close parentheses end style

U=Lattice Energy ; NA= Avogadro Number ; M= Madelung Constant ; z+ & z- = Charge on the Cation & the Anion;

e = Change of an electron; n= Born Exponent ; r =Inter ionicDistance; εo = Permitivity of free Space; 

begin mathsize 48px style n lambda equals 2 d subscript h k l end subscript sin theta end style

n = An integer ;   λ = Wavelength of the incident light ; dhkl= Lattice Spacing ; θ = Angle of incidence ; 

begin mathsize 36px style 1 over d squared equals fraction numerator h squared plus k squared over denominator a squared end fraction plus space l squared over c squared end style

d= Interplanar Spacing ; h , k , l = Miller Indices; a ,c = Lattice Constants

begin mathsize 48px style r subscript s m a l l end subscript over r subscript b i g end subscript end style

rsmaller= Radius of the smaller ion (usually the Cation) ; rbigger = Radius of the bigger ion (usually the Anion)